Tag: Students

How to do thinking in Nursing?

The picture above is the colorado river cutting its way through the rocks on its way down to the Grand Canyon.

Nursing and ‘On Intellectual Craftsmanship’ (C. Wright Mills 1959)

‘Doing’ professional registered nursing involves ‘hands on’ practical skills, but it also involves ‘thinking’. If there is no thinking then nursing has been reduced to a ‘procedure’, a sequence of ‘hands on’ practical skills which requires training rather than higher education and which can then be undertaken by care assistants. The thinking required is not just the recollection of facts to be applied to a patient situation. For example knowing what a drug does, what the correct dose is, and whether it is right for the patient, is a recollection of factual information. The mere collection of thousands of ‘facts’ in your head to be applied to patient care, reduces registered nursing, again, to a procedure, albeit complicated by the sheer number of facts. In a rapidly changing world of demographic changes, new technological developments, environmental damages, shifting health care delivery systems, geo-political conflicts and global socio-economic challenges, what is required is critical thinking supported by scholarship. The professional nurse with a higher education preparation will, or ought to be, engaged in critical thinking to move beyond merely recalling facts as we cannot insulate ourselves from the social and political contexts in which we work.

How do we do this? Sociologist C Wright Mills in 1959 clearly called for scholarship and criticised some sociologists at that time for not doing this. In the appendix to ‘The Sociological Imagination’ Wright Mills outlines his view on ‘doing’ social science in which he suggests that ‘Scholarship’ (“scholarship is writing”) is more important for the social, as opposed to the ‘natural’ scientist, than empirical research. If nursing is as much a social science based practice discipline as one that is also rooted in the biomedical sciences, then this argument applies.

Wright Mills referred to empirical science as the “mere sorting out of facts and disagreements about facts”. I would argue that this equally applies to professional nursing (Goodman 2011). Student nurses study evidence based practice and the application of research to practice. A good deal of this is factual information based upon empirical research . Students will, however, we required to critique this research. This will involve studying ‘rules of method’, i.e. how do we ‘do’ research, but arguments on this, e.g. is an interview better than a survey to help us answer this research question, are just so much navel gazing which Wright Mills wished to avoid if he could possibly do so, as he argued:

“Now I do not like to do empirical work if I can possibly avoid it” (p205).

Wright Mills was clear on this. He argued that the task of social science and I would add professional nursing is thus to critically engage in the real world, joining the nurse’s personal experience and intellectual life through critical reflective reason as the

“advance guard in any field of learning” (p205).

Empirical ResearchA central concept in modern science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence that is observable by the senses. The term refers to the use of working hypotheses that are testable using observation or experiment. In this sense of the word, scientific statements are subject to, and derived from, our experiences or observations. Crudely, this means we need to be able to measure things, we need to be able to see, touch, hear…..

 

Wright Mills in arguing for craftsmanship in intellectual life implicitly acknowledges in the ‘Sociological Imagination’, the need to go beyond simple empirical knowledge in forming policy action when he asks social scientists in their political and intellectual tasks to clarify the contemporary causes of uneasiness and indifference (p13) to personal troubles and public issues.

The personal trouble of lying in soiled sheets in a hospital ward has to be linked to the public issue of the provision of care for older people in acute hospitals. This issue and our indifference to it, or our unease with it, has to be critically examined to seek answers beyond simply blaming uncaring individuals.

The social scientist is not to merely describe the contemporary elements of social life but to engage with it. The nursing ‘scientist’ is not to merely describe contemporary elements of patients’ experiences, e.g. abusive care, but to engage with it. Professional nurses charged with delivering care are thus asked to engage in critically understanding the social, political and economic structures in which care occurs.

Craftsmanship

Wright Mills uses the word ‘craftsmanship’. The use of the word ‘craft’ appears here to differentiate the activity from that of mere mastery of elaborate discussions about research method and which would quickly make one “impatient and weary” (p195). A craft suggests development of skill by diligent constant practice, honing one’s technique by reference to finished products and products in the process of being created to evaluate their flaws and strengths and then adjust accordingly. This is reflexive practice in that the work as it continues is being constantly worked and reworked as required. It suggests leaps of imagination and intuitive thinking and practice in the creation of a project. It calls for a departure from strict adherence to a rigid structure of routines, methods and frameworks. It also suggests a measure of artistry in thinking. In other words a potter ‘crafts’ his pot, as the clay spins there is a constant feedback to the craftsmanship of what is happening, he or she constantly adjusts the application of skill to fashion what they want. Some of this is under conscious control, some of it is unconscious based on years of experience and input. Likewise, thinking and scholarship can be a craft in this manner. The end product is not a pot but a theory, an argument, a series of questions, an hypothesis. In fact there may not be an end product as thinking may be continuous.

The scholarly craftsman is his or her work as their craft develops alongside who they are. Scholarly craftsmanship then is a state of being not only doing:

“Scholarship is a choice of how to live as well as a choice of career” (p196).

When Wright Mills wrote that:

“admirable thinkers…do not split their work from their lives” (p195)

…he preconceives notions of lifelong learning that are to follow.

Nursing practice if it were to take this concept on board may then have to consider a break away from a wage based employee model where a nurse works for 37.5 hours per week to a salaried professional/intellectual model whereupon the nurse would continue to critically reflect on issues pertinent to speciality and patient group outside of NHS contracted hours. Given the current context of the NHS and clinical practice this seems highly unlikely for clinically based nurses. But if not them, who? If not now, when? If not here, where?

To undertake this craft he asks students and social scientists to keep a journal to enable the development of the intellectual life, of the craftsmanship of social science. This should consist of ideas, personal notes, excerpts from books, bibliographical items and outlines of projects. He suggests that journals should record ‘fringe thoughts’, snatches of conversation and even dreams. This will also include the taking of copious notes from books and this needs developing into a habit.

Since Wright Mills outlined notes on journal keeping there has been the explosion onto the scene of information technologies, elearning and web 2.0. These are now new tools that were unavailable to Wright Mills. However the essential nature of scholarly activity should not be lost in any infatuation with new technologies, rather these gateway technologies could facilitate critical enquiry and journal keeping.

Wright Mills’ work thus calls for the development of scholarship as a core intellectual activity. However, critical scholarship within nursing is under threat both in practice and in Universities, skewed as it is towards empirical enquiries and buckling under the weight of bureaucracy, managerialism and the demands of the corporate University. There is an urgent need to rediscover it if we are to address the complex questions and serious issues of our age such as inequalities in health, care of frail older people, health service funding, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease, depression, anxiety, the social and political determinants of health and climate change. Nurses can choose to engage with this agenda or not.

 

 

 

 

“The University in Ruins”

Constructing the Paraversity using the web.

 

Introduction

Higher Education institutions across the globe are changing and changing fast. Several writers have expressed dismay, as well as seeing opportunities to move in different directions, in response to what has been called the ‘University in Ruins’ (Readings 1996).

 

Gary Rolfe (2013), picking up on Reading’s work addressed ‘scholarship in the corporate university’ and suggested that academics must ‘dwell in the ruins’ in an authentic and productive way through the development of a community of philosophers who will dissent, subvert and challenge the ‘corporate university’ from within. Tools for subversion are at hand. Social media, blogging, open access journals and the development of new academic websites such as Researchgate and academia.edu, give academics new ways to reach students, and indeed anybody, way beyond the physical confines of their campus. Accepting that there are issues of peer review and hence quality, these tools allow free access and may facilitate dialogue in ways unheard of just few years ago. This paper explores the ruins, argues for critical dissensus, and shares one experience of using such tools and suggests that this might then assist in building Rolfe’s ‘community of philosophers’ or what Slavoj Žižek has called ‘liberated territories’ (Žižek 2008).

 

Following a note on pedagogy and addressing what the purpose of education  might be,  the idea of the Paraversity will be outlined, and importantly a central notion of dissensus highlighted. Why nurse educators and student nurses should engage in dissensus, as well as professional training, is a point to be debated. To do so, I will refer to the work of C Wright Mills’ on ‘intellectual craftsmanship’. Secondly, an example of constructing this Paraversity will be shared, not that this is a paradigm case, but as only one way to do so, a way that of course may prove fruitless as we acknowledge the variety of approaches and uncertainty of any outcomes. Indeed ‘outcomes’ themselves may be part of the language of a certain mindset that is antithetical to the Paraversity.

So, what follows is a thesis, which may draw forth an antithesis resulting in a new synthesis, which in turn can be challenged. Consensus and agreement is not the point; dialogue is. This paper is overtly political; drawing upon Freire’s ‘pedagogy of the oppressed’, Marx and the heirs of Marx, to argue that nursing is locked into a matrix of social systems that are oppressive and marginalising, and that Higher Education itself, in the guise of the ‘University of Excellence’ is increasingly commodified, and losing its way as it tries to meet the needs of the ‘Knowledge Economy’ in the production of ‘Cognitive Capitalism’.  I argue we need to revisit the question ‘what is education for’?

 


 

A note on Pedagogy

 

Paulo Friere’s first premise concerns a humanistic value base, upon which a pedagogy should be constructed. The human being is a ‘subject’, rather than an ‘object’ ready for construction by oppressive forces. Our ‘ontological vocation’ is towards ‘humanization’; to be able to engage in ‘conscientização’   which is learning to perceive social, political and economic contradictions and to take action against the oppressive elements of reality.

Stephen Sterling (2001) later argued that we need a paradigm shift away from transmissive forms of education towards transformative forms of education. Transmitting an education that ensures graduates are better equipped to perform clinical skills is first order learning.  However it is a partial education at best. First order learning takes place within current educational boundaries and philosophies. It is adaptivelearning, e.g. the acquisition of skills and knowledge to assist in adapting to new roles as registered nurses.

 

Education ought to be a process of transforming individuals so that base values, assumptions and paradigms are taken into account and challenged  – this is what Sterling calls second and third order learning.

 

Second order learning involves critically reflective learning. This is about examining the assumptions that underpin first order learning.

Third order learning is transformative learning and allows us to change perspectives and paradigms. It is creative, is a ‘shift in consciousness’, and involves a ‘deep awareness of alternative world views’ (Sterling 2001 p15).

 

Education in this sense is for humanity rather than just the transmission of knowledge, skills and values for the corporate, or employment, sphere. The Paraversity could be such a space in which this pedagogy operates. Thus, the process of education is as important, if not more important, than the end product. However, this is an issue for nurse education – to what degree is the product more important than the process? Do certain professional values, regulation and the needs for an NHS workforce outweigh the experience of a critical pedagogy? If so, are we constructing the student as passive object, who also self governs, rendering them unable to engage with countervailing voices against a one dimensional political hegemony in which the ‘market is king’?

We need to challenge pedagogical assumptions because, contrary to what many would have us believe, history has not ended, business can’t be ‘as usual’ and this is not ‘the best of all possible worlds’:

“The truth is that many things on which our future health and prosperity depend are in dire jeopardy….this is not the work of ignorant people. Rather it is largely the results of work by people with BAs, BScs, LLBs, MBAs and PhDs.” (Orr 2004 p.7)

The global financial crisis of 2007-8 was not caused by blue collar workers, nurses or teachers, but arose out of the activities of very clever people recruited from so called elite universities, many of whom studied economics mired in orthodoxy, rendering it unable to foresee the systemic risk building up within finance capital.

Jihadist social movements have gained ground in part to the ideologically based bumblings of Yale, Harvard and Oxbridge Educated elites, who with characteristic hubris and with appalling lack of insight, declared ‘mission accomplished’, and are now fretting about ‘radicalisation’ while doing little to address the socio-political causes of jihadist ideological narratives that drive young men and women into armed conflict.

Older people, their families, and those with mental health problems, in contemporary capitalist societies are experiencing crises in health and social care provision as successive governments have failed to put the interests of people before profits and capital accumulation.

With a few exceptions, for example Michael Burawoy’s (2004) notion of ‘public sociology’ or Paul Hawken’s notion of the ‘Blessed Unrest’, we have largely failed to produce enough countervailing voices, or a new vision of care that is fit for the 21st century. There is little in the way of critical guiding philosophies in operation for nursing beyond individualised biomedically dominated notions of ‘care and compassion’ in the context of instrumentally orientated curricula obsessed with competence – ‘doing rather than thinking’. This is not to deny the existence of critical voices in the literature, just to acknowledge the often ahistorical, apolitical and anti theoretical nature of what passes for scholarship in and for clinical practice.

This might seem irrelevant, idealistic, utopian and antithetical to professional nursing practice. Nonetheless, it is a notion that can be discussed within the paraversity as an element of dissensus.


 

What is the ‘paraversity’? (Rolfe 2013).

Gary Rolfe  suggest that the ‘paraversity’ runs alongside the visible University, going unnoticed or unseen. The paraversity is a ‘mental space’ of dissensus, seeking no unity of thought or acceptance of any grand narrative. As such, the Paraversity may well throw up an antithesis to this thesis. It is invisible, subversive and a virtual institution. It is not owned by corporate interests, it is not influenced directly by research bodies, funding streams or research programmes or corporate management strategies. The national student survey is irrelevant to its continuance. There will be no physically identified building or faculty – it exists in the form of a community of philosopher scholars exploring and deconstructing and reconstructing ideas.

In the paraversity there is no need to arrive at consensus or agreement or a system of unified thought. It does not exist to fulfil the corporate university’s aims and objectives, it is the ‘pursuit of difference’ to keep open debate and discussion and not to shut it down. It also operates to call the corporate university to intellectual account.

In this aim, it fosters countervailing voices to critique one dimensional thought and implicitly evokes the critical theory of Herbert Marcuse, Theodore Adorno and Louis Althusser, but is of course not merely the intellectual heir to such thought as if the matters regarding ontology, epistemology and philosophy were settled. This uncertainty of certainty could be potentially unsettling for nursing thought and practice which seeks certainty and truth in professional practice.

 

What are Universities for?

“In a world characterised by complexity and uncertainty, our long term survival lies…..in our willingness to bend the rules in unforeseen circumstances and even operate beyond our level of knowledge as we make our world view” (Paul Vare p2).

Vare acknowledges that the problems besetting the world require thinking differently, acting differently and challenging many long held assumptions. Academic disciplines which cannot evolve their thinking will produce graduates who will engage in ‘business as usual’ chasing fewer and fewer ‘plum’ jobs as they join the precariat (Standing 2011) as ‘graduates with no future’ (Mason 2012) .

 

The ‘University of Excellence’.

It might be argued that within the ‘Enlightenment’, the historic missions of Universities focused on ‘truth’ and ‘emancipation’. Docherty (2014) writes

“In 1946, the political theorist Hannah Arendt received a copy of The Idea of the University, which was written by her mentor, Karl Jaspers. Jaspers had revised the book, originally published in 1923, for the post-war context, when German universities needed to recover from explicit institutional and ideological conformism to Nazism. He advances a reconfiguration of academic freedom that, today, is everywhere threatened again, thanks to a failure of political will – and of leadership – that allows intellectual freedoms to be sacrificed to financial priorities. Writing to Jaspers on receipt of the book, Arendt firmly expressed the view that, given the cost of the higher education system, it must be state-funded. But it was vital that the professoriate should not thereby become tacitly politicised “civil servants”. Academic freedom meant that universities should be governed by intellectual demands, without improper political interference”.

Now, this narrative has been replaced with that of the neoliberal capitalist narrative of efficiency and profitability, i.e. the narrative of the market. Readings (1996) argued that the ‘pursuit of excellence’ within this narrative is a legitimising idea. However, ‘excellence’ refers more to administrative processes in which ‘excellence’ is a unit of measurement, devoid of qualitative content, which we now measure through such metrics as attrition, the number of firsts, impact factors, the number of research grants awarded and student perception questionnaires. An excellent nursing degree is one with low attrition, satisfied students, high employability and high numbers of firsts. Who would disagree with that?  Rolfe (2013) suggests this view of excellence is one of quantity rather than quality and brings us into the realms of ‘efficiency, profitability and administration’ (p9). He goes on to argue

“The vision and mission of the University has shifted from the production and dissemination of thought and ideas to the generation and sale of facts and data” (Rolfe 2013 p 81).

This suggests that the role of Universities now is often that of contributing to the local and national economy and to train graduates for the job market, and I would suggest that in many nursing departments that is the sole ‘raison d’etre’.

This instrumental orientation to nursing education (Goodman 2012) is evidenced by the dominance of competency based education, fit for practice, fit for purpose curricula, based on the NMC’s educational standards. The student nurse or graduate registrant who questions and critiques the ontological, political, ideological and epistemological assumptions upon which care is designed, delivered and evaluated would not be that welcome in clinical practice and perhaps only marginally tolerated in many nursing modules based on the transmission of facts and theories for clinical practice, grounded as many are in the assumptions of positivist and empiricist science. Nursing theory, let alone feminist or critical theory, may have disappeared from nurse education.  We may now be less able within nursing curricula to question the basis of social knowledge and care practices from critical perspectives that seeks to illuminate the subject positioning of women and the marginalisation of older people as unproductive burdens on society.

What is being lost is the notion of ‘intellectual craftmanship’ in favour of the search for empirical certainty, data and hard facts to guide practice. Indeed, evidence based practice education can be reduced to issues of methodology rather than issues of epistemology, philosophy and ontology. Perhaps many nurse scholars themselves have lost the ability to engage in this activity, and thus to be role models, buckling under the pressure to deliver clinical skills and other diverse teaching while also delivering empirically based research which provides facts and answers to practical questions. Many of course will have been schooled in the biomedical sciences and thus would not have had the critical epistemological enquiries and paradigms of social science. What we end up with is the pressure to produce ‘denotative’ writing – the telling and informing process through powerpoints and scientific reports as the dominant discourse of knowledge production and dissemination.  This is the ‘University of Excellence’.

 

What are academics for in the ‘University of Excellence’?

 

Brock (2014) asked “what is the function of the social movement academic’? However I would rephrase this and ask “what is one of the functions of the nurse academic? I would respond, as Brock does, with the suggestion that it is partly “to debunk the knowledge on which the powerful rest”.  One of those notions being peddled currently is that the NHS and society will not be able to afford care for older people,  that free at the point of delivery will no longer be possible, and that expensive external monitoring and inspections are worth the money spent on them. All the while corporates lobby behind the scenes for bits of the profitable NHS pie; see this list by Andrew Robertson on his site ‘social investigations’.

To engage in debunking requires ‘intellectual craftsmanship’ and is important for critical enquiry in the paraversity. What might that look like?

 

On Intellectual Craftsmanship  (C Wright Mills 1959).

 

In the appendix to ‘The Sociological Imagination’ Wright Mills outlined his view on ‘doing’ social science in which he suggested that ‘Scholarship’ is more important than empirical research for the social scientist. He considered that Empiricism was the ‘mere sorting out of facts and disagreements about facts’. Wright Mills’ critique of abstract empiricism contained in ‘The Sociological Imagination’ is that argument made manifest. Rules of method and arguments on methodological procedures and validity are just so much navel gazing which Wright Mills wished to avoid if he could possibly do so:

 

“Now I do not like to do empirical work if I can possibly avoid it” (p205) and “there is no more worth in empirical enquiry as such than in reading as such” (p 226).

 

The task of social science is thus to critically engage in the real world, joining personal experience and intellectual life through critical reflective reason as the

 

“advance guard in any field of learning” (p205).

He argued:

“It is the political task of the social scientist — as of any liberal educator — continually to translate personal troubles into public issues, and public issues into the terms of their human meaning for a variety of individuals. It is his task to display in his work — and, as an educator, in his life as well — this kind of sociological imagination. And it is his purpose to cultivate such habits of mind among the men and women who are publicly exposed to him. To secure these ends is to secure reason and individuality, and to make these the predominant values of a democratic society” (p187).

The personal trouble of obesity is a public issue not a personal moral failing of weak willed individuals. We must look to the role of fossil fuels instead of food, in providing energy; we must look at the marketing and distribution activities of the food industry; we must look to portrayals of the body in the media;  we must look to the structures od sedentary employment…..

Nurse educators might read this and think, actually, no it is not my political task at all!  Nurse students do not need to think about their personal lives and the lives of others as they relate to wider social and political issues…they need to be able to deliver care – to provide pain relief, comfort and explanations to vulnerable people, to interpret cardiac rhythms and administer medications, to assess wounds and decide upon management plans….that is the stuff of nursing and the rest of this is mere frippery. This is a view I have heard expressed by students as they cry “when are we going to learn proper nursing?”

In this they might be supported by the Corporate University which, in response to the demands of its customers, industry, commerce and the economy, has shifted the emphasis of the role of the academic from raising questions to providing answers, from problematizing to problem solving. Many nursing students want answers, not to raise questions. Thus empiricism and the tenets of positivistic science have been dragooned to support this mission. This is in opposition to many notions regarding personal and social transformation.

 

Michael Burawoy argued:

“The original passion for social justice, economic equality, human rights, sustainable environment, political freedom or simply a better world, that drew so many of us to sociology, is channeled into the pursuit of academic credentials. Progress becomes a battery of disciplinary techniques—standardized courses, validated reading lists, bureaucratic ranking intensive examinations, literature reviews, tailored dissertations, refereed publications, the all-mighty CV, the job search, the tenure file, and then policing one’s colleagues and successors to make sure we all march in step. Still, despite the normalizing pressures of careers, the originating moral impetus is rarely vanquished, the sociological spirit cannot be extinguished so easily”.

Can we replace sociology with nursing in this paragraph? Can we say our original passions have been channeled into pointless mindnumbing bureaucratically led education programmes that do nothing to challenge or change the context of care in which currently we are facing major issues in mental health and the care of older people with long term conditions?

Antonio Gramsci’s (1971) archetypal theory of the intellectual may also be illuminative and raises questions about what we are here for. Gramsci described two types of intellectual: the ‘traditional’ and the ‘organic’. The traditional is the academic who secures the status quo and the organic as the activist whose function it was to ‘construct a transformative historical bloc’, an alternative basis of consent for social order (Cresswell and Spandler 2012 p4). Although written many decades ago, this archetype may well be seen within the corporate university which supports and encourages the traditional and ignores the activist.

Nursing, and nurse academics, have a question to address. Are we engaged in the development of a practice based discipline interested only in the ‘sorting out of facts and the disagreements of facts?’ Are we traditional and/or organic academics? Is there room for both, either as separate individuals or as two roles within the same person? Justification for the ‘discovery of facts’ may be founded on its usefulness for policy and clinical practice and of course should be foundational knowledge for clinical nursing practice, after all we do not want the wrong drug to be administered because we have not sorted out the ‘facts’.

However, empirical research does not take place within a political vacuum and it would be a mistake to see the relationship of research to policy and practice as a simple linear relationship. The purist model of ‘research-policy relationships’ which takes for granted that research informs policy action by generating knowledge, or the problem solving model whereby research is driven by the need for a policy answer, do not adequately describe the process and is a far too narrow a focus for scholarship. It just does not address some of the fundamental questions underpinning human health and well-being which are as much to do with human agency and social structures within certain political economies, as to do with biomedical processes.

Research and policy then is a political activity. Wright Mills in arguing for craftsmanship in intellectual life implicitly acknowledges in the Sociological Imagination the need to go beyond simple empirical knowledge in forming policy action when he enjoins social scientists in a political and intellectual task to clarify the contemporary causes of “uneasiness and indifference to personal troubles and public issues” (p13). The social scientist is not to merely describe the contemporary elements of social life, but to engage in it.

The use of the word ‘craft’, undefined by Mills, appears here to differentiate the activity from that of (mere?) mastery of elaborate discussions of research method and ‘theory-in-general’, which would quickly make one “impatient and weary” (p195). A craft suggests development of skill by diligent constant practice, honing one’s technique by reference to finished products and products in the process of being to evaluate their flaws and strengths and then adjust accordingly. This is reflexive practice in that the work as it continues is being constantly worked and reworked as required. It suggests leaps of imagination and intuitive thinking and practice in the creation of a project. It calls for a departure from strict adherence to a rigid structure of routines, methods and frameworks. It also suggests a measure of artistry in thinking.

The scholarly craftsman is his work as his craft develops alongside who he is. Scholarly craftsmanship then is a state of being not only doing:

When Wright Mills argued that:

“admirable thinkers…do not split their work from their lives” (p195), he also argued

“Scholarship is a choice of how to live as well as a choice of career” (p196).

And:

“Scholarship is writing”.

To undertake this craft he asked students and social scientists to keep a journal to enable the development of the intellectual life, of the craftsmanship of social science. This should consist of ideas, personal notes, excerpts from books, bibliographical items and outlines of projects. He suggests that journals should record ‘fringe thoughts’, snatches of conversation and even dreams. This will also include the taking of copious notes from books and this needs developing into a habit.

Since Wright Mills outlined notes on journal keeping there has been the explosion onto the scene of information technologies, elearning and web 2.0. These are now new tools that were unavailable to Wright Mills. However the essential nature of scholarly activity should not be lost in any infatuation with new technologies, rather these gateway technologies could facilitate critical enquiry, journal keeping and the connection of a community of philosopher scholars engaged in dissensus and critique through a process of what Paolo Freire called dialogics.

To assist in this process, scholars need to write, and to write essays or blogs and not just research reports; to engage in discussion and not just to tell; write to invite commentary, to clarify one’s thoughts, to learn about oneself as well as to explore ideas and investigate one’s area of interest. Nursing is a socio-political activity and not just an applied set of techniques; and as such requires critique, understanding, discussion, reflexivity and transformation. The corporate university may not be interested in these ‘outcomes’, fixated as it may be on contracted commissioning targets, workforce development, league tables, SPQ results, attrition rates and ill defined notions of the ‘student experience’. The early career nursing academic will be faced by a host of external constraints on their intellectual development and their ‘success’ or performance development reviews may rest on targets and values not of their own making. What may be ignored by ‘impact metrics’ is any of their writing, which is createdover and above the research ‘write up’ focused on answering an empirical question according to a matrix of methodological imperatives. Graham Scambler (2014), as a now retired academic,  makes the point that he benefitted from the freedom to engage in intellectual activity unchained from the demand s of the Corporate University chasing its position in league tables:

“I was rarely during my career forced onto the back-foot, obliged to define achievement in terms of research revenue generated or publications in high-impact journals.”

And…

“I have encountered several ‘young’ sociologists whose expertise by far exceeds mine and who have played significant roles in facilitating as well as contributing to virtual networking and innovation but whose pioneering expertise in social media remain institutionally unrecognized and unrewarded” (my emphasis).

 

Karl Marx, C Wright Mills, Antonio Gramsci, Paulo Freire, Pierre Bourdieu, Michael Burawoy,  recognized that intellectuals can play a crucial role in ideological warfare against the dominant classes. The Paraversity may assist in this by creating

 

“havens of thinking into which thinkers can migrate and from which thoughts can proliferate and social change can reify” (Žižek 2008).

 


 

What might the Paraversity begin to look like?

 

The examples below are not definitive, it is up to the community of scholars to construct the Paraversity and if it is based on dissensus, it may look very different and take on a dynamic nature. If the idea is to create dialogue, to share ideas, to critique, to go beyond the physical confines of the Corporate University, the web 2.0 technologies might assist in this process.

 

1. Social Science and Nursing

2. Graham Scambler

4. Benny Goodman’s blog

5. Researchgate

6. Academia.edu

7. Facebook

8. Twitter

 

The links above will provide examples of critical thought and the sharing of ideas accessible by anyone anywhere and at anytime. They provide platforms for commentary and feedback, both synchronously and asynchronously. Their credibility may be built upon already established reputations and research outputs and/or by the clarity and force of the arguments. They will stand or fall by the readership wanting to engage and share and the commitment and enthusiasm by the creator.

 

Conclusion

 

Human health and wellbeing depend on many things. Critical education and challenging taken for granted assumptions are part of the foundations for human progress, if we still believe in progress. Universities may not provide the fertile soil for critical enquiry and discourse, but we do not have to wait for this to occur. We can right now live in the ruins of the University and engage in scholarship that is subversive, critical and potentially engaging and do so in the full knowledge that traditional rewards and recognition may not be forthcoming. That makes it risky. That also makes it fun.

References

Brock T (2014) What is the function of the Social Movement Academic? The Sociological Imagination. http://sociologicalimagination.org/archives/15545

 

Burawoy, M. (2004) Public Sociologies: Contradictions, Dilemmas and Possibilities. Social Forces, 82(4), 1603-1618.

 

Cresswell M. and Spandler H. (2012) The Engaged Academic: Academic Intellectuals and the Psychiatric Survivor Movement, Social Movement Studies DOI:10.1080/14742837.2012.696821.

 

Docherty T (2014) Austerity canard stymies funding debate. THES. July 7th  http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.aspx?storyCode=2014367

 

Goodman B (2013) What are nurse academics for? Intellectual craftsmanship in an age of instrumentalism. Nurse Education Today 33: 87-89

 

Gramsci, A. (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Lawrence and Wishart. London

 

Mason, P. 2012 The graduates of 2012 will survive only in the cracks of our economy. The ‘Graduate without a future’ series. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/jul/01/graduates-2012-survive-in-cracks-economy

 

Orr D. (2004) Earth in Mind. On Education, Environment, and the Human Prospect. Island Press, Washington.

 

Rolfe G (2013) The University in Dissent. Routledge. London

 

Readings B (1996) The University in Ruins. Harvard University Press. Cambridge. MA.

 

Scambler, G. (2014) A 100th Blog: A reflexive interlude.http://www.grahamscambler.com/a-100th-blog-a-reflexive-interlude/#respond

 

Standing, G. (2011) The Precariat: the new dangerous class. Bloomsbury. London

 

Sterling S (2001). Sustainable Education – Revisioning Learning and Change, Schumacher Briefings 6. Green Books, Dartington.

 

Vare P (2014) Sustainability Literacy: role or goal? (online) http://arts.brighton.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/6202/Sustainability-Literacy-Blewitt-and-Vare.pdf in Stibbe A (2014) Handbook of Sustainability Literacy http://arts.brighton.ac.uk/stibbe-handbook-of-sustainability

 

Wright Mills C (1959) The Sociological Imagination. 40th Edition. Oxford University Press  Oxford.

 

Zizek S (2008) Violence. Profile. London.

 

Too posh to wash? Failures of the governing, managerial and political classes

Too posh to wash? Reflections on the future of Nursing.

 

When…only one man is unemployed, that is his personal trouble, and for its relief we look to the character of the man, his skills and his immediate opportunities. When…15 million…are unemployed, that is an issue, and we may not hope to find the solution within the range of opportunities open to any one individual…Both the correct statement of the problem and the range of possible solutions require us to consider the economic and political institutions of society and not merely the personal situation and character of a scatter of individuals”. (C Wright Mills – The Sociological Imagination p9).

 

 

In the many contributions to the debate about poor quality care, there is often a distinct lack of a sociological imagination. While individuals can be rightly criticised for giving poor care, the antecedents are to be found beyond the personal trouble of individual nurses and their patients, and can be classed as a public issue: that of the political, social and economic failures of the governing, managerial and administering classes over the past few decades.

 

‘Too posh to wash’ is the title of a recent publication on the condition of nursing in 2013 and reflects newspaper headlines and the Health Minister, Jeremy Hunt’s, call to student nurses in March 2013. In it there is a range of contributions from various practitioners and experts on the delivery of care in the UK. They were asked to address various questions:

 

1. Why do we have lapses in nursing care and what needs to be done to prevent poor care back into caring?

 

2. In striving for professionalism have we over qualified yet undertrained today’s nurse? Are they too posh to wash? What mechanisms and support systems need to be in place to ‘bring excellence’ back into the profession?

 

3. Has the role of the nurse leader been devalued? Has respect for their knowledge and expertise and a desire to emulate them decreased?

 

4. Why have boards within both NHS and non-NHS organisations appeared to have failed to deliver the expected improvements in quality of care? Are board members unaware of the standards on their wards or in their care settings?

 

Various issues and solutions were raised but the answer to the title appears to be: “no”, students are not too posh to wash.  The myth of a golden age was shown to be just that – a myth. Menzies Lyth’s 1960 paper was quoted and is still worth a read today. I would also refer to Kath Melia’s work around the challenges students faced nearly three decades ago.

 

Among the normative statements made, i.e. what nurses ‘ought’ and ‘should’ do, there was some attempt at analysis of underlying reasons for poor care. This included societal attitudes to ageing and caring, and technology and is affects on communication. There was no call however to return to apprenticeship training outside the University. This accords with the findings of the Willis Commission (2012).

 

What was striking was the almost passing references to systemic failures within the NHS around the structures for providing care. These failures are the responsibility of the governing political and managerial classes who are charged with running the NHS. While we are acknowledging ageing populations, increasing frailties and complex care needs, there is a a requirement to examine the context of care. To examine what structures have been put in place to deliver care to increasing numbers of frail elderly people in acute hospitals and care homes. Student nurses in particular are placed in clinical practices which are not conducive to compassionate care, and are often the least equipped to understand, analyse and bring about change.

 

Universities can support the development of critical thinking and underpinning knowledge but are almost powerless to affect this care context in which students find themselves. No amount of curricular changes emphasising compassion and caring will work if students continue to experience Melia’s 1984 and Lyth’s 1960 descriptions of the care environment.

 

Menzies Lyth (1960) argued that nurses experienced high levels of anxiety due to their work and that there was an absence in the hospital of any mechanism through which to ‘positively help the individual confront the anxiety provoking experiences’. The result was a set of defensiveness techniques including the splitting up of the nurse-patient relationship. A more recent research report (Hillman et al 2013) also report ‘defensive practice’ resulting in an ‘us and them’ subject position regarding their patients as nurses felt the pressures of litigation, complaints and the pressing need to meet the managerial requirements of the organisation.

 

Melia (1984) outlined two competing ‘segments’ – the ‘educational’, focusing on learning, and the ‘service’ which focused on ‘getting the work done’. In learning to ‘fit in’ students experienced a transient approach to nursing implicitly supporting a lack of commitment to nursing as an occupation. This is mirrored in a 2010 study of Norwegian students in which it is argued:

 

“While clinical practice often has focus on practical problem-solving and procedures, the college tends to focus on abstract theory. Both of these promote the privatisation and neglect of the students’ experience of care. The paper concludes with a call for teaching and learning strategies targeting the use of nursing students’ personal experience of care”. (p73 Solvoli and Heggen 2010).

 

So, no ‘golden age’ then or now.

 

In the 2013 ‘Too posh’ document, three commentators pointed out the critical place that clinical practice experiences have which implicitly build upon Menzies Lyth and Kath Melia.  Professor David Sines argued that there needs to be:

 

 

1. dynamic placement opportunities for students that expose and challenge them to confront the complexity of health and social care, within, between and across clinical care pathways, supported by a curriculum that is ‘wrapped around the patient’s/user’s real experience and journey’;

 

2. robust, enhanced and effective mentorship and preceptorship partnerships with our Trusts;

 

These 2 ambitions will not be achieved in care environments where there is poor skill mix; care given by care assistants who may be poorly supervised and trained; poor staff-patient ratios and minimal professional support and development. Sines goes on to argue:

“Above all our next generation workforce requires access to expert mentorship and role models to nurture and inculcate excellence in practice and resilience in attitude to deliver optimal standards of care at all times, turning each patient encounter into a learning opportunity that leads to sustainable excellence” (p15).

 

Again this is a key issue: ‘Access to expert mentors’. Far too many students report the lack of both access and the quality of support in this area. Therefore this may sadly, in the current context, be too idealistic. This might be born out by Bradbury Jones et al (2011) who reported that not all students have a positive experience:

 

“Unfortunately there were many examples of disregard and disrespect of students as learners. Lack of encouragement and responsibility were significant issues and this had a negative impact on students’ knowledge and confidence. These findings are consistent with nursing literature in terms of lack of support and encouragement and specifically, lack of interest in learners (Lindop, 1999). The findings also mirror those of Levett-Jones and Lathlean (2008), who reported that while a number of students in their study had positive placements, too many had experiences where their learning was not optimised and their competence and confidence were negatively affected. Like the students in this study, Levett-Jones et al. (2009) found that some mentors seemed to disregard students’ feelings and made little attempt to hide their impatience and frustration” (p371).

 

 

Maura Buchanan also focuses attention on the clinical environment:

“ I would argue that the main responsibility for failing standards lies not with nurse education, rather, with the clinical practice environment for which employers must take blame” (p17).

 

Jenny Aston also points to deficiencies in the clinical environment:

 

“With university based training (sic), considerable responsibility is left with the placement mentor to ensure that students have the necessary hands-on nursing skills. Many students have minimal one-to-one learning from their clinical mentors,who are busy with their own responsibilities, and have little or no protected time to teach the essential skills…University lecturers rarely have the time to visit, let alone work, in the clinical areas”. (p21)

 

The responsibility for safe compassionate care rests with Trust boards. NHS management has taken its collective eye off the ball and is often ill equipped to know if poor care is being given. Universities cannot do the work for Trust boards. Any call for a return to apprenticeship training within NHS trusts must address this fundamental issue. In far too many cases there are insufficient governance practices in place to ensure care standards are upheld. Aston argued:

 

“There is a need for governance measures to be in place to ensure that care is of a high standard as there will always be a conflict between cost and quality. Board level

decisions need to be based on a good understanding of how care can best be delivered and measured so on the ground clinicians need to be informing high level decision makers. Great care needs to be taken to measure the right things and not just numbers; otherwise real improvements will not be demonstrated. An experienced pair of nursing eyes and ears can identify good and bad care in a way that complex audits or form filling may fail to achieve”.

 

Roy Lilley has often stated: ‘Fund the front line. Make it fun to work there, that way you will make Francis history”. Nurses and nursing students have been criticised as lacking in compassion. No doubt this is true for some nurses. However, it is the lack of governance and poor clinical environments that both grows uncaring attitudes and fails to weed them out. Trust Boards through excellent management must implement strategies that ensure the front line is properly supported and developed.

 

When only 1 nurse provides poor care, that is their personal trouble….when we have had a catalogue of reports into poor care,  that is a public issue and we should not find the solution in the situation of any one nurse. We must look into the economic and political nature of NHS Trusts and of society to move beyond criticisms of individual nurses and their personal failings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Beer, G. ed. (2013) Too posh to Wash. 2020.org  Too Posh to Wash?

 

Bradbury Jones, C., Sambrook, S., and Irvine, F. (2011) Empowerment and being valued: A phenomenological study of nursing student’s experiences of clinical practice. Nurse Education Today. 31 p368-372

 

Hillman, A., Tadd, W., Calnan, S., Calnan, M., Bayer, A., and Read, S. (2013) Risk, Governance and the experience of Care. Sociology of Health and Illness. doi: 10.1111/1467-9566.12017  pp1-17

 

Levett-Jones, T., Lathlean, J. (2008) Belongingness: a prerequisite for nursing students’ clinical learning Nurse Education in Practice, 8 pp. 103–111

 

Levett-Jones, t., Lathlean, J., Higgins, I., and McMillan, M. (2009)

Staff-student relationships and their impact on nursing students’ belongingness and learning Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65 (2) pp. 316–324

 

Lindop, E, (1999) A comparative study of stress between pre- and post-Project 2000 students Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29 (4), pp. 967–973

 

Menzies Lyth, I. (1960) The functioning of social systems as a defence against anxiety. Human Relations. 13 (2) 95-121

 

Melia, K. (1987) Working and Learning: The Occupational Socialisation of student nurses. Tavistock press. London.

 

Solvoli, B., and Heggen, K. (2010) Teaching and Learning Care – exploring nursing students’ clinical practice. Nurse education Today. 30 (1) p73-77

 

Willis Commission (2012) Quality with compassion: the future of nursing education. http://www.williscommission.org.uk/

 

Wright Mills, C. (1959) The Sociological Imagination. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

 

Students who acquire large amounts of debt putting themselves through school are unlikely to think about changing society

“Students who acquire large amounts of debt putting themselves through school are unlikely to think about changing society. When you trap people in a system of debt, they can’t afford the time to think. Tuition fees increases are a disciplinary technique and by the time students graduate they are not only loaded with debt but have also internalised the disciplinary culture.  This makes them efficient components of the consumer economy”.

 

(attributed to Noam Chomsky).

 

University tuition fees, and the student’s preoccupation with ‘occupation’ as the defining goal of higher education, reflect the realities of current education provision within modern capitalist societies. Societies have to reproduce themselves and education is part of that process. Getting students and society to accept this version of education requires an ideological straightjacket underpinned and reinforced by a disciplinary practice, e.g. debt or fear of unemployment, or fear of exclusion from desired goods and services, or fear of poverty in a post welfare state economy.  This fear is reinforced by the globalisation of labour power in which vast reserve armies of labour have been drafted into the relations of production in a competitive race to the bottom. A race which requires ‘flexible’ labour markets. Students, and their parents, are increasingly aware that skills and knowledge is being ‘outsourced’ to the emerging economies in a competitive globalised market. Those who cannot compete will be relegated to the poor prospects, low wage, part time, zero hours contract economy, to become the ‘precariat‘.

 

 

 

Thus, Higher Education is increasingly a commodity to be sold in a market aimed at the reproduction of the relations of production in a global competitive marketplace. This how the Corporate Class Executive and the Political Power Elite (CCE/PPE) under financial capitalism requires it to be. They inhabit, own and run this market place and compete to reap the rewards that they enjoy. To continue to do so, their vested interests in the current system has to be supported by reproducing the current conditions of production.

 

 

 

In ‘On Ideology’ Louis Althusser outlined a theory of the reproduction of labour power through a mechanism of ideology, as well as repression when required.  This operates in the following way:

 

As stated above there is a requirement to reproduce the ‘conditions of production’:  every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production and in doing so, and to survive, that social formation must reproduce the productive forces and the social relations of production. These sound very technical. What this means is that society has to ensure the next generation engages in the world of work and the social relationships that make up how we work together. So far, so what? Hunter gatherer societies had a very sustainable ‘mode of production’ – they hunted and gathered! Their conditions of production were their small group kin relationships and the natural environment they found themselves in, with property rights, if they had them, manifested in their cultural practices. The next generation had to learn the skills and knowledge required to reproduce the conditions of production they grew up in. Or die. However, even in these so called ‘primitive’ societies there was room for art, as expressed in the cave paintings that survive to this die. All their educational practices were not only to reproduce the way of life and the goods and services they required. As far as we know, early human groups also seemed to engage in ‘art for art’s sake’.

 

So, a mode of production is the way a society organises the provision of goods and services (hunter-gather, feudal, mercantile/industrial/financial/state capitalism). This ‘mode’ describes how we go about making things, growing things, distributing and exchanging things that we all want. This of course involves social relationships, which includes in the modern era communities or workers all focused on producing certain goods. This also involves the relationships these workers have with the owners of any land they work on. Another social relationship is that of ‘contract’, we promise each other to do or provide something and the terms that surround that promise. Productive forces might include the availability and bringing together infrastructures such as railways or information technologies to those with goods or services to sell. Together the forces and social relations of production are the ‘conditions of production’. The ‘means of production’ include land, capital, factories, call centres, railways, the internet.

 

Productive forces must reproduce the means of production and reproduce labour power. In order to smoothly reproduce labour power, Labour (workers/students) must learn the skills needed in the economy, and the rules that govern Labour’s place in the social relationships of production.

 

This where higher, and other forms, of education and training comes in. To ensure the smooth running of the capitalist system, Labour must accept its place and preferably not question the social relations of production. Education that focuses only on providing skills and knowledge for a job will not equip students with critical tools. The system of rewards and incentives can then be reproduced without query. In a capitalist mode of production, wages must also reproduce labour power otherwise the next generation can’t pay their bills to eat and pay rent. Competence also reproduces labour power otherwise the next generation can’t undertake the work that is required. Ideology also reproduces labour power, the work ethic must be passed on while the system of rewards for work has to be seen as legitimate and as serving the needs of all fairly rather than serving the needs of the few unfairly. Not to do this will lead to a ‘crisis of legitimation’ in which the citizenry cry ‘enough!”

 

So, the reproduction of labour power also requires the reproduction of it’s submission to the rules of the established order, to the ruling ideology, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology for the benefit of the agents of exploitation and repression so that they too will provide for the domination of the ruling class in words.

 

Ruling class interests requires that labour/students submit to the dominant rules, and that this submission is reproduced. Ruling class ideology must be seen as being the ‘normal rules’ which are required to ensure the system functions efficiently for all and not just for the ruling class. Class interests must be covered up by an ideology that masks the exploitative social relationships of production. Ruling ideas must become ‘common sense’ that everyone in society accepts.

 

Thus it is becoming common sense that one is required to pay for education on the basis that she or he who pays also is the one who benefits from education. Common sense argues that middle class beneficiaries of education must not benefit from the tax contributions of working class people who do not go to University. It is also common sense that if one has to pay for education then this should lead to paid employment, that the course above all other objectives must lead to skills for the workplace. Currently this means a focus on STEM subjects in order to prepare the UK workforce to compete in a global marketplace. Why waste an education on the Arts and Humanities when what is required is skills in the sciences, maths and technology?

 

Philosophy and Critical Sociology are luxuries we can longer afford.

 

Thus for the current system of capital to continue as a mode of production, the CCE/PPE need to ensure that Labour (students) accepts the tenets of this brand (neoliberalism) as serving not only or just the ruling elite or class but also that it serves Labour’s own interest.

 

To do that it needs an ideological apparatus, backed up by a repressive apparatus when required, i.e. when labour/students no longer accepts the ideology. The disciplinary techniques mentioned above are part of the repressive apparatus used to keep students in line. The paradox is that the more repression is required over and above the ideological, the less acceptance of the ideology there is. Repression may actually highlight that ‘the rules’ are not legitimate, but are self serving rules for the ruling class. This is evidenced by the Occupy movement, the ‘Indignados’ and what Paul Mason has called the ‘graduate with no future’ who increasingly argue that the current system is unjust.

 

The ideology supporting tuition fees is that of neoliberalism: Unfettered markets, deregulation of capital, the withering away and de-legitimisation of state provision, control of Labour and its immasculation as a force in politics, and the primacy of individualism. This is supported by a materialist culture that values consumption as an end in itself. Other social goals are relegated as useless in meeting the demands of markets and consumption. Globalisation backs this up through threats of undercutting wages and moving production to where Labour is weaker.

 

This ideology supported the development of Finance Capital as it replaces Industrial capital as a dominant mode of production in developed countries. Finance capital provides fabulous rewards for those that access and control financial assets, but it produces nothing concrete. It may provide capital for investment for actual production of goods and services but even this base function has been overshadowed by its overreach into speculation, trading on credit default swaps, hedging and betting on futures markets.

 

The promise of material rewards, the manufacture of demand for consumer products, fear of precarious work, the collapse of the structure of opportunities, fear of migrant workers, the powerlessness of social democratic control, and the loss of collective social solidarity in a liquid modern world, leads many students to accept fees and experience its disciplinary nature.

 

Students therefore get trapped into a higher education system that reproduces the social relationship of production that suits the needs of the CCE/PPE. Unless there are liberated territories for critical thinking that are not linked to ‘getting a job’, a generation of students will find it hard to articulate against power, to organise against power, to speak truth to power and will resort to credit fuelled consumption locked onto the treadmill of mortgages they can neither afford, or not to afford to have. They’ll be damned if they do, and damned if they don’t. Not getting into mortgage debt means facing a lifetime of rent and that could take an increasing share of their income. Getting into mortgage debt, on top of the fees debt, ensures they keep compliant or lose risking their home as well as the loss of their critical faculties as disciplined consumers. The other way to ‘escape’ fees debt is not too earn too much and wait for 30 years.

 

Finally, there is a small group of ‘elite’ universities who are particularly complicit in all of this. Supported by long established histories, nobel prize winners, wealthy benefactors and  huge corporate and state funding for research they provide the instrumentally based education that supplies and supports the next generation of the CCE/PPE. They get prestige, power and funding, they provide a compliant uncritical graduate whose only goals are their ‘discipline’ and naked self aggrandisement as members of an ‘elite’ group. Their failure to forecast economic collapse indicates the level of their paradigm bound understanding. Just at a time when the modern university should have been critiquing ideological policies, they capitulated, unable to analyse the systemic risk that resulted in the collapse of Lehmann’s and nearly the entire global financial system, an error that students are now also paying for.

 

The riposte to this is that the system is inevitable, that society has to reproduce a workforce that can do the ‘work’ and that someone has to pay for that education. This misses the point. It is a given that this is so, but it is the form of that education and the nature of work itself as well as the social relationships which direct reward and incentives that can be critiqued. However, while education trains for skills for the workplace it cannot focus on the ideological reasons that underpin the current system.

 

It does not have to be this way.  For the student working in a burger bar who will graduate to a precariat ‘non job’, they have little choice and little voice, in this Hobbesian educational and social environment.

 

 

 

‘Students at the heart of the system’

The recent gov’t white paper (http://tinyurl.com/heartofsystem) of course contains some sentiments that on the face of it few would find hard to disagree with and it seems churlish to knee jerk with negativity. Given that the view is now firmly entrenched (by many in HE it must be said) that HE’s role is primarily to produce a workforce that can compete in a global market, and that students are now consumers of a product, the statements make sense in that context. However, and you knew this would come, this does nothing to address the challenges faced by critical disciplines in the humanities and social sciences whose raison d’etre, as disciplines, does not fit this intrumentalist model of HE. I really fear that only the very well off will now spend £27,000 + to study what may be seen as esoteric subjects that are not immediately aligned to well paid employment. And don’t give me the guff about not paying that back until a threshold of earnings has been reached, as students will clearly see this as investment they have to make for payback in a career.

This is the continuing triumph of neoliberal philosophy applied to HE, my only hope is that students may see through this and that I am worrying needlessly because of an ideological position I am taking. As an afterthought, how did C Wright Mills gain employment in Columbia given the instrumentalist and often private nature of US HE? Anyone know? His ‘star status’ now may gain him entry into Grayling et al’s New College?

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