“Undesired different-ness from what we had anticipated”.
“reduced in our minds from a whole and usual person to a tainted, discounted one”
1. Medical conditions which give rise to stigma can be:
· Discrediting conditions (visible).
· Discreditable conditions (invisible).
2. The experience of stigma can be:
· Felt – your subjective experience.
· Enacted – when discrimination takes place, moral judgments made.
· Courtesy – when friends and family are involved and feel the discrimination or stigma.
· ‘Abominations’ of the body.
· Blemishes of character. weak will, domineering or unnatural passions, treacherous and rigid beliefs, or dishonesty. Blemishes of character are inferred from, for example, mental disorder, imprisonment, addiction, alcoholism, homosexuality, unemployment, suicidal attempts, or radical political behaviour.
· Tribal, e.g. arising from race, nation and religion. beliefs that are transmitted through lineages and equally contaminate all members of a family.
4. According to Goffman, diseases associated with the highest degree of stigma share common attributes:
· The person with the disease is seen as responsible for having the illness.
- The disease is progressive and incurable.
- The disease is not well understood among the public.
- The symptoms cannot be concealed.
Goffman, E. (1963) Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall.